Tag Archives: school

The Nervous System: Basic Properties of Nerve Cells

By | July 20, 2021

The fundamental unit of the nervous system is not just neurons but also glia! However, the neurons have features that would allow them to communicate with each other, including long-distance communication. These features are: The morphological and functional asymmetry of neurons – dendrites with specialized receptors and the transmitting potential of axon forms the basis… Read More »

Global Warming and Climate Change: Everything One Should Know!

By | July 9, 2021

The heatwaves struck Europe, South Asia, Australia, and North America such that the weather records got smashed in the summer of 2019. The Intergovernmental Planet for Climate Change (IPCC) released a report that human-induced activities are causing a major shift in the earth’s climate. We have warmed the earth by 1 degree Celsius since pre-industrial… Read More »

Quantitative/Real-time PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)

By | July 6, 2021

PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction): The two strands of the target DNA molecule are denatured and separated by heating (94 degrees Celsius), in the first step of PCR. In the second step of PCR, annealing, unique sequences around 20 bp (oligonucleotides) complementary to 5′ and 3′ part of the target DNA called primers will bind. The… Read More »

How to design primers for PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)?

By | June 30, 2021

Primers will have the following characteristics: Primers will have a sequence length of 17 to 30 nucleotides. This enables unique annealing of the primer to a single sequence of the genome. Their GC content will be at least 50 percent. There should be more GC content towards the 3′ end so that it’s bound strongly… Read More »

Abnormal accumulation of proteins in neurodegenerative disorders

By | June 29, 2021

Alzheimer’s disease: A microtubule-binding protein called tau abnormally aggregates in the nerve cells, glia, and extracellular space in Alzheimer’s disease. These accumulated tau molecules are highly phosphorylated and are arranged into long, thin polymers that wind around one another to form helical filaments. The helical filaments form bundles in dendrites, axon, and cell bodies that… Read More »

Epigenetic regulation in the developing cerebral cortex/brain

By | June 29, 2021

The cerebral cortex or brain is a complex organ because millions of circuits involving various neuronal subtypes give rise to complex behavior or specific function. This process of neuronal circuit formation involved a complex network of transcriptional control of specification and plasticity of neurons. FEZF2 is one such transcription factor that is essential for the… Read More »

Mitochondria – The Powerhouse of the Cell

By | June 4, 2021

The mitochondrion is commonly called the ‘powerhouse of the cell’. Mitochondria (plural form) are double membrane-bound organelle that produces energy (adenosine triphosphate (ATP)) for the basal metabolism of the cell in most of the eukaryotic organism. Mitochondria require oxygen during the process of pyruvate breakdown and ATP synthesis. The end products of this process (oxidative… Read More »