Tag Archives: ATP

Fermentation – Cellular Respiration (Part – III)

By | October 20, 2021

Introduction : Glucose happens to be important and common fuel for many organisms. The process of breaking down of glucose in multistep manner to extract energy present in its C-C bonds (chemical bonds) is called “Cellular Respiration“. Only green plants, Algae and Cyanobacteria have the ability to prepare their own food by the process of… Read More »

Glycolysis – Cellular Respiration (Part II)

By | October 17, 2021

The breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid in a multi step manner is called as Glycolysis. It takes place in cytoplasm of the cell. It is common pathway to both Anaerobic and Aerobic respiration. The Glycolysis pathway is a very ancient pathway present in majority of organisms from every branch of the bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. This… Read More »

Cellular Respiration – Part I

By | October 14, 2021

Earth came into existence some 4.5 billions year ago and based on the fossil evidence from ancient rocks of Greenland, the life on earth dates to 3.7 billion years ago.  The organisms that existed for the first two billions years, after the origin of life, were all anaerobic organisms. These organisms managed to survive and… Read More »

Difference between Light and dark Reactions – Photosynthesis in Plants Part – IV

By | September 21, 2021

Light and Dark reactions ( Calvin cycle / C3 Cycle) are sequential reactions which occur during Photosynthesis process. In this post we will look into some important differences between these two vital aspects which are essential for synthesis of food in Plants and some other organisms. Difference Light Reaction Dark or Calvin Cycle Place of… Read More »

Calvin Cycle – Photosynthesis in Plants (PART -III)

By | September 21, 2021

The term Photosynthesis was first proposed by Prof. Conway MacMillan , when he was working at University of Minnesota in 1893. In the earlier blog posts we discussed about Introduction to Photosynthesis in green Plants and details of Light Reaction. As we have seen in previous posts, Photosynthesis can be divided into two different parts… Read More »

Light Reaction – Photosynthesis in Plants (PART II)

By | September 19, 2021

Photosynthesis can be divided into two parts : Light dependent reactions or Light Reactions and Dark Reactions or Calvin Cycle. Light reactions forms the “Photo” part of Photosynthesis and Dark reactions / Calvin Cycle is a separate process which accounts for “synthesis” aspect in Photosynthesis, where sugars are produced. Light reaction involves the following events… Read More »

Photosynthesis in plants – Introduction Part I

By | September 17, 2021

Photosynthesis is a process where green plants and some other organisms (algae and some bacteria – such as Proteobacteria , Chloroflexi, Chlorobi and cyanobacteria ) uses trapped sunlight to convert carbon di oxide and water to produce chemical energy in the form of carbohydrates (most commonly glucose) and oxygen. In other words, photosynthesis is a process… Read More »

Anabolism – Building cell structures with simple molecules

By | August 7, 2021

Every living creature on this planet Earth needs to extract energy from the dietary food, a process termed as Catabolism ( breaking down of complex molecules into simpler molecules to yield maximum energy, eg: Glucose gets converted by a process involving Glycolysis, Krebs cycle and electron transport chain – to yield ATP). The opposite cellular… Read More »

4 major Biological Macromolecules – Fueling Life

By | July 27, 2021

Everything on this Earth – living and non-living, is made up of atoms. An atom is the smallest unit of matter that has the characteristic properties of a chemical element. Two or more different or similar atoms will combine to form “Molecules” with the help of chemical bonds. Many molecules, joined together in an organized manner… Read More »

Mitochondria – The Powerhouse of the Cell

By | June 4, 2021

The mitochondrion is commonly called the ‘powerhouse of the cell’. Mitochondria (plural form) are double membrane-bound organelle that produces energy (adenosine triphosphate (ATP)) for the basal metabolism of the cell in most of the eukaryotic organism. Mitochondria require oxygen during the process of pyruvate breakdown and ATP synthesis. The end products of this process (oxidative… Read More »