Category Archives: School

Lysosomes – Digestive Organelle of an Animal Cell

By | July 27, 2021

A lysosome has approximately 50 different hydrolytic enzymes. These enzymes are produced by the endoplasmic reticulum and targeted lysosomes. Lysosome enzymes can digest every type of biological macromolecule. All the enzymes of the lysosome share significant properties – their optical activity at an acid pH and thus are acid hydrolases. The pH optimum of these… Read More »

Golgi Complex – The Protein Assembly Center of the Cell

By | July 26, 2021

The Golgi complex has a characteristic morphology – flattened, disklike, membranous cisternae with dilated rims, and associated tubules. The cisternae have a diameter of 0.5 to 1 micrometer, stacked in an ordered manner and a Golgi stack contains fewer than eight cisternae. There are several thousand distinct types of stacks depending on the cell type.… Read More »

Endoplasmic Reticulum – The Lipid and Protein Processing Machinery of the Cell

By | July 23, 2021

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is divided into – smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) and rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). ER consists of a system of membranes that enclose a space or lumen, that separates it from the cytosol. The composition of the luminal or cisternal space inside the ER membranes is quite different from the cytosolic space.… Read More »

RNA – Types and Structure

By | July 23, 2021

The nucleic acids are one of the important macromolecules present in the nucleus of all eukaryotes. They are also present in all bacteria and viruses, but in non-eukaryotes, nucleic acids are not enclosed in the nuclear membrane. Some cell organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts (present in plant cells) also have their own nucleic acid… Read More »

DNA – Instructions for life

By | July 21, 2021

If one looks inside the nucleus of every human cell, there are 46 tiny rod like structure called as Chromosomes. These chromosomes are made of tightly coiled strands of Deoxyribonucleic acid – DNA. It is one of the two main nucleic acids found in our cells. DNA happens to be the genetic material in all living… Read More »

Why are potassium ions more permeable than sodium ions?

By | July 20, 2021

Ion channels have three important properties: They are selective to specific ions They open and close to specific stimuli such as electrical, chemical, or mechanical signals They conduct ions across the membrane. The fastest flow of ions across channels is comparable to the fastest turnover of enzymes such as carbonic anhydrase or catalase. The turnover… Read More »

What are Stem cells?

By | July 20, 2021

Our body is made of trillions of cells and there are different cell types performing their unique function. Among the different cell types, stem cells are unique in their remarkable ability to renew themselves. Another aspect which makes them special and really useful in therapeutics is that they can develop into any other cell type.… Read More »

Nucleus – Master controller of cell

By | July 17, 2021

An eukaryotic cell is covered by a two layer plasma membrane. The region inside the plasma membrane can be divided into fluid like cytoplasm and Nucleus. The nucleus is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells with the exception of Red blood cells. It happens to be the largest organelle in animal cells and also… Read More »

Cytoplasm – Organizing life inside the cell

By | July 15, 2021

The cytoplasm (in eukaryotes) is the fluid content inside the plasma membrane excluding the nucleus and its contents. It means, all the organelles plus their contents, cytoplasmic matrix / fluid, macromolecules and ions put together constitutes “cytoplasm”. Sometimes it is important to differentiate between the cytosol and the cytoplasm. The cytosol is defined as all… Read More »

Deforestation: Everything One Should Know!

By | July 15, 2021

Forests and the present state of deforestation Forests, home to about 50% of species on land, are useful for – Provision of accessible fresh water Climate mitigation Provision of life saving medicines for various diseases Mitigation of natural hazards Provision of oxygen Maintenance of soil integrity Storage of carbon from the atmosphere Maintenance of food… Read More »